# effect plots

The Analysis of Covariance, or ANCOVA, is a regression model that includes both categorical and numeric predictors, often just one of each. It is commonly used to analyze a follow-up numeric response after exposure to various treatments, controlling for a baseline measure of that same response. For example, given two subjects with the same baseline value of the study outcome, one in a treated group and the other in a control group, will the subjects have different follow-up outcomes on average?

A Simple Slopes Analysis is a follow-up procedure to regression modeling that helps us investigate and interpret “significant” interactions. The analysis is often employed for interactions between two numeric predictors, but it can be applied to other types of interactions as well. To motivate why we might be interested in this type of analysis, consider the following research question:

Does the length of time in a managerial position (X) and a manager’s ability (Z) help explain or predict a manager’s self-assurance (Y)?

Generalized estimating equations, or GEE, is a method for modeling longitudinal or clustered data. It is usually used with non-normal data such as binary or count data. The name refers to a set of equations that are solved to obtain parameter estimates (i.e., model coefficients). If interested, see Agresti (2002) for the computational details. In this article we simply aim to get you started with implementing and interpreting GEE using the R statistical computing environment.

Multinomial logit models allow us to model membership in a group based on known variables. For example, the operating system preferences of a university’s students could be classified as “Windows,” “Mac,” or “Linux.” Perhaps we would like to better understand why students choose one OS versus another. We might want to build a statistical model that allows us to predict the probability of selecting an OS based on information such as sex, major, financial aid, and so on. Multinomial logit modeling allows us to propose and fit such models.

Let’s say we’re interested in modeling the number of auto accidents that occur at various intersections within a city. Upon collecting data after a certain period of time, perhaps we notice two intersections have the same number of accidents, say 25. Is it correct to conclude these two intersections are similar in their propensity for auto accidents?

Proportional-odds logistic regression is often used to model an ordered categorical response. By "ordered", we mean categories that have a natural ordering, such as "Disagree", "Neutral", "Agree", or "Everyday", "Some days", "Rarely", "Never". For a primer on proportional-odds logistic regression, see our post, Fitting and Interpreting a Proportional Odds Model.

Logistic regression is a popular and effective way of modeling a binary response. For example, we might wonder what influences a person to volunteer, or not volunteer, for psychological research. Some do, some don’t. Are there independent variables that would help explain or distinguish between those who volunteer and those who don’t? Logistic regression gives us a mathematical model that we can we use to estimate the probability of someone volunteering given certain independent variables.